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Being there without being there: The arts in the age of YouTube

by Paul Bentley


Article originally published in Online Currents August 2012 and reprinted with kind permission of Thomson Reuters.


Image: Troglodyte watching television. Paul Bentley

I have become a troglodyte in a wired up cave. Once upon a time I used to go to concerts and the theatre, but I seem to be satisfied now by parcels of pleasure on YouTube. I still go to galleries, but instead of applying paint to canvas, as I used to do, I now doodle on an iPad. What are the other troglodytes doing? How are arts organisations responding to people like me? And what are some of the implications for the arts in a networked world?


Hasan Bakhshi, Director of Creative Industries at the UK National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA) and David Throsby, Professor of Economics at Macquarie University, have explored trends by examining innovation. Although funders beseech arts and cultural organisations to be innovative, Bakhshi and Throsby wrote in their recent report, there is little clarity about what innovation means. After looking at the work of the National Theatre and the Tate in London, they proposed a framework for innovation based on four necessities – extending audience reach, developing art forms, creating extra value and exploring new business models [1].

To reach audiences beyond the confines of its theatres, the National Theatre has been presenting digitised versions of its plays in cinemas around the world through its NT Live initiative ( When it screened a production of Phèdre in 2009, it doubled its audience for the whole season because of a single screening. Almost half of the cinema goers had not seen Phèdre at the theatre because they lived too far away. In the eyes of the public, NT Live complemented rather than replaced the experience in the theatre. Online resources at the Tate have helped the museum to overcome the constraints of distance and time (

In search of new works, the National Theatre is committed to supporting up-and-coming writers. NT Live has demonstrated that cinema audiences are in general more emotionally responsive to new playwrights than traditional theatre audiences. At the Tate, online strategies have helped juggle the competing needs of satisfying the demand for exhibitions of well-known works while also supporting new work.

Fresh thinking, Bakhshi and Throsby wrote, is needed to measure and articulate the full range of benefits that arise from the work of arts and cultural organisations. The value of live and digitised productions can be expressed not only in the willingness of people to pay for the experience, it can be expressed by the value placed on a group experience and by emotional responses to that experience. There is a case for a stronger accounting of purely cultural values as distinct from their economic contributions when assessing the value of cultural institutions.

In exploring a new business model for innovation, arts and cultural organisations need to find new funding streams, both private and public, with an appetite for risk. Both the National Theatre and the Tate have been able to spread risks by using flexible financing structures to accommodate the different needs of particular investors, donors and funding agencies, and by balancing popular presentations with more risky fare.

Bakhshi and Throsby were positive about the revenue potential from digital strategies by theatres. It is too early to say whether live screenings are sustainable, but there has been significant demand for other formats such as live streaming online and DVDs. They were more cautious about the potential for increased revenue from the online operations of art museums. They urged further research and development, involving targeted investment on new business models and partnerships with the research community, philanthropists and businesses. Subsequently, NESTA, with Arts Council England and the Arts and Humanities Research Council, allocated £500,000 on experimental proposals in England. And, in partnership with Creative Scotland and the Arts and the Humanities Research Council, NESTA has embarked on a similar exercise in Scotland.

We can see the patterns emerging on wider fronts.


Companies are following the path of the National Theatre. The Royal Opera House screens its operas and ballets around the world ( The Berlin Philharmonic’s Digital Concert Hall ( offers subscriptions to online concerts and other material. In Paris, Cité de la Musique Live ( provides direct online access to concerts at La Cité and the Salle Pleyel to a worldwide audience. Partnerships have been formed with European broadcasters. Medici TV (, launched in 2008, has a modest annual subscription to online broadcasts of about 100 concerts, operas and ballets a year, and access of over 900 archived titles. The BBC and Arts Council England recently launched the joint venture, The Space (, which provides a live and on-demand digital arts service to audiences in Britain.

In the United States, the Metropolitan Opera has a Met Opera on Demand app for the iPad, giving mobile access to more than 350 high-definition broadcasts, telecasts from the 1970s and more than 250 radio broadcasts dating back to 1936 [2]. Live From Lincoln Center is a television series produced by the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and aired on public broadcasting stations across the country ( The Los Angeles Philharmonic presents live concerts from Walt Disney Concert Hall to cinemas throughout the United States and Canada via LA Phil Live ( Other American orchestras are exploiting broadcasting, online and cinema opportunities.

Individual musicians are in the online game. Anna Netrebko ( and Hélène Grimaud ( have their own websites. You can follow James Rhodes, Yuja Wang, Daniel Barenboim, Gustavo Dudemel, Loren Maazel and Stephen Hough on Twitter. Korean pianist Son Yeol-eum has used an iPad to sight-read a digital score when she performed Liszt’s transcription of Beethoven’s 9th Symphony [3]. As an encore during a performance with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra, pianist Lang Lang played the “Flight of the Bumblebee” at lightning speed on the iPad instead of the Steinway grand piano. Lang Lang’s performance of Prokofiev’s “Piano Sonata No 7” on YouTube is accompanied by the dramatic swoop of an overhead camera to accentuate the relentless drive of the last movement [4].

Recalling the primacy of set design in the 19th century, the Metropolitan Opera’s recent hi-tech staging of Wagner’s Ring was viewed by one critic as a visual art experience as well as a theatrical one. The production is “an orgy of video, carefully sequenced and impeccably presented, relayed by 10 high-definition projectors and aided by sparing use of motion sensors and even voice-activated imagery”. Three video image artists were used to help create digital dimensions to the music and drama [5].

American producer Ken Davenport says t
he fourth wall, the imaginary wall between the audience and players, will continue to be pulled down by the experience of younger generations with interactive entertainment. Social media is changing the way theatre shows are marketed[6]. Karen Larson, however, reminds us that social media as a promotional tool has its limitations: marketing and pricing depends on the product [7].

A picture of efforts in Australia emerges in a paper by the Australian Major Performing Arts Group. Most orchestras around the country are using digital technology to varying degrees – to build grassroots support, to generate new audiences, and to deliver world-class educational resources. Many companies are struggling to keep up with the leap in expertise required in the digital arena and the increasing costs involved. Companies are exploring the best ways to digitise collections in preparation for the National Broadband Network. AMPAG is leading negotiations over artists’ rights with the Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, the industry’s union [8].

The Sydney Opera House has a new digital strategy centring on the video portal, Play ( The House now sells more tickets online than over the counter. It has formed partnerships with the ABC, Opera Australia, CinemaLive, SONY, the arts channel STVDIO, the NSW Department of Education and Training, and the Wolanski Foundation to develop and deliver its digital strategies [9]. The Victorian Arts Centre has a Digital Technology Hub, an upgrade of the Alfred Brash SoundHouse, to provide learning experiences to students and their families.

Palace Cinemas, in partnership with CinemaLive and Opus Arte, are offering overseas productions in local cinemas ( Opera Australia has screened its productions locally and, in 2012-2013, will be screening Don Giovanni, La Traviata and Turandot in the United Kingdom and Ireland [10]. The Sydney Symphony, in partnership with BigPond and ABC Classic FM, presents webcasts of its concerts ( In April, Cold Chisel simultaneously broadcast one of its live concerts to 72 cinemas throughout Australia.

The Australian Performing Arts Gateway AusStage is currently working on a project to amplify the value of its AusStage database through digital visualisation techniques to improve our understanding of historical contexts and collaborations between people. It is also developing approaches for gathering research information from audiences using social media and mobile devices [11].


Other galleries have joined the Tate. The National Gallery in London recently screened its exhibition Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan in cinemas around the world. The price of a cinema ticket was much cheaper than the $400 scalpers were reportedly pocketing in the English capital [12]. But Nick Miller, reviewing the cinema version Leonardo Live in Australia, concluded that it was an experiment that may or may not fly. It was a rare opportunity to see the assembled Leonardo works, but the digital camera shuddered awkwardly as it scanned across the works [13].

You can now use your iPad in your armchair, but without the pleasure of Rome, to marvel at the hand of God in the Sistine Chapel ( The Museum of Modern Art in New York has an Art Lab app to help you create works of art while at the same time encourage you to explore the work of artists represented in the MOMA collection [14]. Tasmania’s digitally-oriented Museum of Old and New Art has a new exhibition Theatre of the World which promises to engage, and reject, the widely held notion that ancient and contemporary works of art are inherently different ('s-on/exhibitions/).

Broadcasters and online enterprises are working with galleries. The BBC, in partnership with Public Catalogue Foundation, has created Your Paintings, a website which aims to show the entire UK national collection of oil paintings, the stories behind the paintings, and where to see them for real ( An even more arresting initiative is the Google Art Project (, which is making digital images of works in galleries around the world and the means to explore them in minute detail.

Individual artists, who rely less on teamwork than their thespian cousins, but who are equally in need of outlets, are grappling with questions about digitising their art and making digital art.

David Hockney is one who has turned to the iPhone and iPad to generate new digital pictures [15]. Early experimentation with software apps has led to exhibitions of his iPad art in Paris, Toronto and London and to experimental high-definition video projections with musical backing. In a retrospective of the work of Gerhard Richter, one of the world’s top-selling living artists, his final work in the exhibition at the Centre Pompidou in Paris, Strips, “explores how traditional painting can be reconciled with the rise of digital culture”[16]. Australian artists are in 2012 represented in the Prix Ars Electronica, an international competition for cyberarts [17].

Digital painting and drawing tools are dirt cheap compared with the price of oil paints and canvases. When I started writing this article, I purchased a number of apps from the iTunes store and, as a ritual to find out what the experience was like, began creating images that I distributed via my Twitter account every day. The practice reinforced the necessity of an old daily habit. The large number of failures that were fed without a thought into the public domain contrasted with the old habit of keeping sketchbook scribbles private. My skill at using the different palettes and features of Sketchbook Pro, Adobe Ideas, Brush, Paper and Zen Brush increased but still has some way to go. Twitter kindly displays my latest daily doodles in an online gallery (!/PaulGBentley/media/grid).

Artists and commentators still grapple with the legitimacy of digital art. The Creators Project ( supports artists who use the new medium, and recently teased out views in a series of blogs published on its website. The art market is thriving, with works of art being sold at record prices. The first computer art exhibitions were staged in 1965. But digital art, the bloggers say, is still not accepted by the art establishment. No-one is going to make money selling internet art, one wrote, because internet business models such as freemium arrangements (an initial free teaser leading to a later payment), micro-patronage and on-demand production are unlikely to work. Digital art, another wrote, is less about lingering in front of a single work, it is more about a shared experience, of being a journey to an idea.

Digital artist, Jorge Colombo, speaking in June at the Rubin Museum in New York, added his thoughts to the discussion. Like Hockney, he uses his iPhone and iPad to create works. iPads have the capacity to raise the level of amateur art practice and the level of understanding about art. As an artist, he likes the immediacy and responsiveness of the iPad apps and the ease with which digital art can be distributed. You have established your niche market, he said, if you are seen by five or 50,000 online viewers: the work is legitimate to the people who view it [18]. Vincent Van Gogh would have been happy to hear this comment: he only had a follower of one, his brother. What would have happened if he had lived in 2012?

The art world is a competitive place. Paul Isbel has underlined the reality: “we are all born artists but only 0.2% of us in Australia continue to ply it as a trade and only 2% of those who ply the trade actually make a decent living from their work” [19].


Governments provide an important role in fostering the arts. That role has come under fresh scrutiny during the current global financial crisis.

In Europe there have been dramatic cuts to government spending, especially in Britain, Italy, the Netherlands and Hungary. The parlous state of the economies of Greece, Portugal, Spain and Ireland clouds future cultural endeavours in those countries. The impact is being felt in the United States. As European cultural institutions scramble to stay afloat, they have begun to compete with American institutions in cultivating sources of private funding in the United States [20].

The arts are experiencing contradictory trends in the United States. According to the Americans for the Arts annual indexes, the sector continues to follow the nation’s business cycle. Attendances have begun to rebound. There is a significant growth in the number of non-profit arts organisations, although they continue to be challenged financially. Consumer spending on the arts remains steady at $150 billion. The movie industry, which typically does well during recessions, had one of its best years in 2009, although motion picture attendance dropped off in 2010. Arts employment is strong. The self-employed “artist-entrepreneur” sector continues to grow. More college arts degrees are conferred annually. Personal arts creation and arts volunteerism remain strong. But philanthropic support for the arts, one of the hallmarks of the American arts scene, has declined [21].  

Randy Cohen has put the case for government and corporate support of the arts using statistics from the Americans for the Arts’ latest Arts & Economic Prosperity IV Study: they are fundamental to humanity, they improve student performance, they have strong economic credentials in terms of employment, tourism and exports, they are linked to better health and they underpin strong communities [22].

The National Governor’s Association Centre for Best Practices in the United States advocates the role of the arts in assisting economic growth at State level [23]. Saving economies locally has led to discussions about the role of cities. In America’s laboured economy, cities of the so-called Rust Belt, Cleveland, Pittsburgh and Detroit, instead of paying their way out of the gloom by building an expensive sports stadium, a performing arts complex or a shopping mall, are creating niche art environments based on the intrinsic character of the town to lift community spirits and boost local tourism [24].

It is an idea promoted locally by Marcus Westbury, founder of R
enew Newcastle ( Westbury has transformed the idea into Renew Australia as a new “national social enterprise designed to catalyse community renewal, economic development, the arts and creative industries across Australia” [25]. He is also organising the 2013 International Symposium of Electronic Art in Sydney ( Digital Sydney is a business initiative supported by the New South Wales government ( that aims to promote investment into Sydney by branding the State capital as “an Asia Pacific centre of excellence for digital talent and work”.

The characteristics of the new economies are trotted out in conference keynote speeches and by commentators. We are in a social revolution that is moving along a number of trajectories. Marketing is dead. Audiences have become communities. The consumer has become co-creator. Organisations have moved from being hierarchies to becoming networks. Market success comes from focusing on platforms rather than products. Leadership has become a question of empowering rather than controlling. The revolution may take some time to unfold [26].

Government cuts in some quarters have stimulated fresh discussions on why the taxpayer should fund the arts and on measuring the value of this investment. Moving beyond the rhetoric, demonstrating quantifiable value and preserving social values is a difficult exercise [27]. To add to the body of literature that has already been accumulated, NESTA’s Hasan Bakhshi has written a paper with Alan Freeman and Graham Hitchen on how to use economics to measure value, to “transcend entrenched misunderstandings between economists and arts policymakers, leaders and funders”. Frustrated arts defenders, they say, will make more headway with clear arguments for better economics than with muddy arguments for immunity from it [28].

Some argue that government money is not the best way to fund the arts. Ian Moss, for example, a supporter of government funding, points out that federal government expenditure is only a drop in the ocean of American expenditure on the arts. The vast majority of funds in the United States is derived from the private sector in the form of earned revenue from ticket sales or other services, or donations from foundations, corporations and individuals. Support for the arts by European governments is greater, but European governments are now looking more closely at the American model of private support [29].

Australian government attention to the arts and digital technology started in earnest when Creative Nation was published by the Keating government in 1994. The government subsequently provided funds for Australia on CD projects aimed at forging sustainable partnerships between cultural institutions, academia and multimedia businesses, Ozeculture conferences to stimulate invention, and other government-funded initiatives. One of the Australia on CD projects won a British Academy of Film and Television Arts award in 1999 and all of them found their way to the shelves of school libraries. The Performing Arts Multimedia Library project, jointly funded by the federal and Victorian governments, anticipated in 1999 the objectives of the NESTA report in 2010 [30].

The Australian government’s principal arts agency, the Australia Council explored the question of the arts and technology in a discussion paper published in 2008. More wide-ranging than the NESTA report, it covered areas such as experiencing live performance digitally, augmenting live performance to enable audience interaction, marketing strategies, customer relationships, recordings, exports, educational products, archives, digital and internet television, and managing information technologies within companies [31].

Its strategy paper, published the following year, proposed paths for policy-makers in reaching new audiences, raising the profile of emerging art forms, building the capacity of the sector to adopt appropriate business models for the digital era, offering support for a new cross-platform arts landscape and encouraging the creation of and access to arts content through digital archives [32].

The federal Labor government promised a Keatingesque re-assessment of government arts when it organised the 2020 summit following its election in 2007. Work on a national cultural policy has since passed through the hands of two ministers, culminating in a recent round of submissions under Simon Crean. Hundreds of submissions are available on the Office of the Arts website ( Federal government budgetary pressures have delayed completion of a report to make sense of the ideas in the submission.

Issues on the table are likely to be issues that have been raised in a plethora of government reports reviewed in the past by Online Currents [33].[These include dysfunctional coordination of government policy across the three tiers of government, removing barriers, redefining concepts, encouraging experimentation, providing channels for commercialisation, more transparency, better business cases, creating incentives, whole-of-government thinking, measuring the impact of cultural decisions, cutting red tape, dealing with the divide between high art and popular culture, taking care of the arts in the regions, copyright reform, encouraging private sector support, digitisation of collections and developing educational resources.

As part of its deliberations about cultural policy, the Australian government is also reviewing the role of the Australia Council. A report by Angus James and Gabrielle Trainor in May 2012 recommended the need to focus on excellence, give priority to research and advocacy programs, merge the Australian Business Arts Foundation and the Artsupport programs within the Australia Council, allocate additional funding of $21.25 million per annum to the Council, build professional capacity, further consultations with the States and Territories, and fresh approaches for assessing funding applications. The report also recommended a shake-up of the governance and operational structures.

Sydney Morning Herald columnist Elizabeth Farrelly greeted the release of the report with a sprinkling of salt and questioned whether it would make any difference. “Everywhere you look, the great institutions of the collective mind are bending over backwards to restrict their message to what people already know, think and like.” Elitists are punished. “The review attempts to deal with this dilemma, but an overwhelmingly bureaucratic worldview, in which important questions are about committee arrangements, does not bode well”[34].

Expectations about the national cultural policy have been teased out as adroitly as Salome, when she removed her seven veils. The speed of the National Broadband Network (NBN) is presented as the next silver bullet. Artists and small-to-medium-sized arts businesses will find it easier to connect and collaborate with each other and to the rest of the world. The tyranny of distance will disappear. Cultural institutions will be able to deliver high-resolution content and services to all Australians, particularly to schools.

The federal government says the NBN will be a game-changer for the arts and cultural sector as it draws attention to related initiatives to prepare for the transformation to come. In late 2011, it announced a $19.94 million NBN-enabled ABC-ESA (Education Services Australia) education portal to be launched the second half of 2012. In December 2011, the Australia Council invited submissions for innovative pioneering art projects for a pilot Broadband Arts Initiative to the value of $300,000. In mid-April 2012, the federal and Northern Territory governments announced a $800,000 joint initiative to place artists and theatre specialists in remote schools around the Northern Territory [35].

You can see there are consistent patterns in the way governments support the arts and their use of technology. The buzz words change to fit the times. We now talk about innovation in a world already created by the innovators. Innovation falters when it is episodic, poorly funded and built on old assumptions [36]. New things can happen by simply working out how better to serve the customers. Calls for extra government funds and government structures, paradoxically, are made at a time when the networked world is a loosely-connected ecology, without structure. But, in the words of a recent Sydney Morning Herald editorial:

"As the economy negotiates the stresses of a fundamental adjustment, this should be a time of cultural engagement and exploration. That cannot be achieved by government fiat or patronage alone, but the exploration of who we are as a society and where we are going will not happen without it either." [37]

The need to digitise archives in museums, galleries, orchestras, opera companies and theatres has been consistently mentioned in despatches. To some extent it has involved throwing money around in the hope that things will happen. Major cultural centres, sometimes afflicted by the ready answers of new brooms and political masters, have made clumsy simplistic decisions about the use of technology. There has been a tendency to treat solutions as marketing exercises at the expense of data management questions. Archives in cultural centres, orchestras and theatres worldwide are coming out of the closet. The New York Philharmonic, for example, began digitising its archives after it received a $2.4 million grant from the Leon Levy Foundation. Digital art poses new challenges for curators to manage and display it. Online Currents will report on recent developments in a future issue.


In the film Being There, a simple-minded gardener, Chauncey Gardiner, played by Peter Sellers, becomes an American presidential prospect because he expresses a world view shaped by his knowledge of gardening and watching television. “Is there a TV upstairs? I like to watch.” At the end of the film he walks off across the surface of a lake. He pauses, and to show the audience he is actually walking on water, dips his umbrella to test its depth, then continues to walk towards the horizon. "Life is a state of mind."

Glenn Gould stopped giving live concerts at the age of 31 because he hated playing in front of a real audience. Arthur Rubenstein continued to give concerts until he was 89 because it was an important social experience.

Experiencing performances on YouTube is enriched by memories of actually being there. I have felt the climax of a Mahler symphony through the floorboards of a concert hall. I have marvelled at an emotionally-charged silence between a pair of live actors more palpable than anything you would feel in a cinema. I fell in love with the works of Cy Twombly only after seeing them big in his retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art. When I experience Grigory Sokolov play Le Tic Toc Choc at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées on YouTube [38], it brings back the memory of Paul Badura-Skoda playing Schubert one Sunday morning in the same theatre.

Being there without having been there is only half the experience.


[1] Bakhshi H and Throsby D, Culture of Innovation: An Economic Analysis of Innovation in Arts and Cultural Organisations (NESTA, June 2010),

[3] Do Je-hae, “iPads Appearing on Stage”, Korea Times (11 January 2012),

[4] Lang Lang performs Prokofiev Piano Sonata No 7, Movement III, Precipitato, at

[6] Davenport K, On the Red Couch: Broadway’s Ken Davenport Champions Theater 2.0,

[7] Larsen K, “Pricing Strategies to Attract Audiences and Keep Them Coming Back for More”, Arts Marketing (14 October 2011),

[8] Australian Major Performing Arts Group, Impact of Digital Technology (2011),

[9] Sydney Opera House, “Digital Technology Takes Sydney Opera House beyond Bennelong Point” (Media Release, 10 September 2010),

[10] “Opera Australia's Don Giovanni, La Traviata, Turandot in Cinemas UK & Ireland, 2012-2013”, The Wagnerian (28 May 2012),

[11] AusStage aus-e-project,

[12] Smee S, “Experiencing Leonardo from Cinema Seating”, Boston Globe (15 February 2012),

[13] Miller N, “Strokes of Genius Captured in all their Glory”, The Sydney Morning Herald (17 February 2012).

[14] MOMA app Art Lab iPad App,

[15] Isenberg B, “David Hockney's Friends in Art: The iPad and iPhone”, Los Angeles Times (23 January 2011),; iPhone Finger-painter David Hockney in Studio Q,

[16] Adamson T, “German Artist Gerhard Richter Opens Largest Exhibition at the Pompidou Center in Paris”, Art Daily (11 June 2012),

[17] Australia Council, “Australian Artists at Prix Ars Electronica 2012”,

[18] “The Arts and Technology: Responding to the 21st Century”, Rubin Museum of Art Education Blog (7 June 2012),

[19] Isbel P, “99.8%: Attrition Rate of Artists in Australia”, artsHub Australia (8 May 2012),

[20] Rohter L, “In Europe, Where Art is Life, Ax Falls on Public Financing”, The New York Times (24 March 2012),

[21] Americans for the Arts, 2012 National Arts Index,

[22] Cohen R, “10 Reasons to Support the Arts in 2012”, Americans for the Arts Blog (11 April 2012),

[23] Sparks E and Waits M, New Engines of Growth: Five Roles for Arts, Culture, and Design (NGA Center for Best Practices, May 2012),

[24] Bowie S, “Cities Thinking Differently, Through the Arts”, Technology in the Arts (23 April 2012),

[25] Renew Australia, “About Us”,  

[26] Bonchek M, “Putting Facebook in Perspective”, Harvard Business Review (16 May 2012),

[27] Edgar D, “Why Should we Fund the Arts?”, The Guardian (5 January 2012),

[28] Bakhshi H, Freeman A and Hitchen A, “Measuring Intrinsic Value: How to Stop Worrying and Love Economics” (April 2009),

[29] Moss I, “Government Money is Not the Best Way to Fund the Arts”, The Huffington Post (1 May 2012),

[30] Performing Arts Multimedia Library, “Technology and Marketing the Performing Arts: An Overview”,

[31] Bailey J, Don't Panic: The Impact of Digital Technology on the Major Performing Arts (Australia Council for the Arts, 2008),

[32] Australia Council for the Arts, Arts Content for the Digital Age (June 2009),

[33] Bentley P, “The Digital Economy Dance: Getting into Step with Government Policy” (2009) 23 OLC 13.

[34] Farrelly E, “The PC Crowd That’s Keeping the World of Art Mediocre”, The Sydney Morning Herald (17 May 2012).

[35] "The NBN and the Arts: Here, Now and to Come”, artsHub (31 May 2012),

[36] McGrath R, “Five Ways to Ruin Your Innovation Process”, Harvard Business Review (5 June 2012),

[37] “Lead by Example in the Arts”, The Sydney Morning Herald (4 May 2012),

[38] Grigory Sokolov Playing the Le Tic Toc Choc ou les Maillotins,

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