The ALIA Information Online
conference in 2009 began on the day of Barack Obama’s
inauguration as President of the United States of America.
Obama’s campaign slogan – change you can believe in – infused
The 2011 conference opened as the
Tunisian Jasmine revolution spilled into Egypt. The protests in Tunisia
had led to the departure of President Zine El Abidine Ben a fortnight
before the conference. The unrest in Egypt forced
the resignation of Hosni Mubarak after the conference.
Social media have been credited
with the rise of the American president and the fall of the North
African leaders. The significance of the internet and its impact on
society were underscored by the short list for Time magazine’s
2010 Person of the Year. The founder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, made
it all the way to the front cover. Julian Assange, founder of Wikileaks,
ended up in a British court fighting a Swedish extradition request amid
speculation that political forces were gathering around him.
For Information Online 2011, the
organisers had invited a librarian and four outsiders as keynote
speakers to speculate on the impact of the internet from the
perspectives of Google, businesses in general, publishers, broadcasters,
museums, libraries and society at large.
A Google perspective
Iarla Flynn, Google’s Head of
Public Policy and Government Affairs in Australia and New Zealand,
sketched out the latest facts about the internet, a global enterprise
now used by 2 billion people. By 2020, 5 billion uses are anticipated.
About 85% of Australians are now connected to broadband.
The recent growth in the use of
mobile phones has been phenomenal. There are now 5 billion connections
in the world today. More people have access to mobile devises than
access to running water. In Australia, there are more mobile phones than
there are credit cards.
Social networking is facilitating
rapid change. About 800 million people worldwide now use associated
tools and channels. Facebook has 500 million users.
The shared infrastructure of cloud
computing, offering ease of adoption and lower costs than alternative
technology, is attracting more attention.
In this environment, Google
continues to refine its search capabilities, products and services.
Google Books now has about 15 million titles sourced from publishers and
libraries. Through Google News Archive Search, it is making available
archival content from more than 300 newspapers around the world,
including Australia, and it has begun to digitise magazine articles.
Google doesn’t regard Goggle Books as a substitute for traditional
books: in-copyright books only have snippets available.
Where do librarians fit into this
universe? Flynn believes technology does not necessarily replace things,
it just speeds them up. Libraries have already embraced the internet.
People still need help to navigate information sources. The digital
divide continues to offer opportunities. Librarians have a vital role in
the future. They share common ground with Google about censorship of the
web, freedom of access to information, a commonsense approach to a safer
internet, and the need for infrastructure to facilitate access to
A business perspective
Jim McKerlie posed the question:
who will be the winners and losers in future online information
services? As Executive Chairman of the digital marketing and technology
service, Bullseye, he worked through his paper
First Thoughts: Business@100Mbps - a View of the Firm of the Future
to articulate the portents of change and their likely impact on any
business in the future. In a world where the internet is a game changer,
industries will be influenced by six new paradigms.
Paradigm one is the move from
product-driven to customer-driven supply chains. In product-driven
supply chains producers created the market for the products in the
manner of a campaign for Marlborough cigarettes. Customer-driven supply
chains give emphasis to customer input. Print-and-distribute production
flows will morph into distribute-and-print processes. Supply chains will
form around manufacturers and customer managers. Information services,
he suggested, are likely to gravitate around these two roles, with one
focusing on accumulation, storage and management of large repositories
and the other, on specialist information providers who assist users to
find what they want.
Paradigm two is the move from
homogenous to fragmented markets. The mass market tends to treat
customers as if they are homogenous. Many new channels will help market
segments to prosper. Products and services will be able to be tailored
to specific needs, giving rise to specialist and “boutique” operators.
The traditional information industry consists of large collections of
information artefacts stored in grand buildings that make statements and
which people visit. We could see further disintermediation of physical
libraries and the rise of specialists and special interest user groups.
Segmentation will not be as you know it, he said, but will be based on
the personal needs of the user. There may be a new role for information
scientists, brokers and special interest groups.
Paradigm three is the move from
distributive to collaborative networks. The traditional model consists
of a centre connected outwards to nodes, with information flows going
one way. In emerging collaborative networks, content will be generated
by the nodes.
Paradigm four is the rise of rich
media. The definition of information will change and the ability to
influence the user experience will change dramatically.
Paradigm five is the emerging role
of intelligent terminals, such as iPhones, smart cards, and tablets.
Intelligent terminals receive, transmit and have processing power which
not only promotes collaborative networks, but allows the creation of
Paradigm six is the primacy of the
individual – “my time is prime time – anywhere, anytime, and only what I
In short, the information component
of goods and services is increasing. The value-add provided by
information contexts is increasingly valued. The creation, storage, and
distribution of information is not a lowly clerical function but is
increasingly of high value. The consumption of information will be
tracked. There will be greater analysis of the market. Content and
visitor strategies will be based more on consumption history not
curatorial value. And, in case we had forgotten one of the managerial
buzz words of recent times, knowledge will be commoditised. Know-how
will be a strong currency.
A perspective about publishing
Michael Mace is a media commentator
and principal at Rubicon Consulting, where he helps technology companies
plan strategies and products. He thinks writers and editors create
magic, but the lesson of the past decade, so far as publishing is
concerned, is that “if you don’t eat your own children, someone else
will.” Picasso, if he had been in the audience, would have agreed
What have we learned from a decade
of experimentation with e-book development, he speculated? In 2000,
there were a number of e-book and great expectations. Dick Brass, head
of e-books at Microsoft, for example, said in 2001: “Paper has taken us
about as far as it can go: we’re on the verge of something new. Twenty
years from now, 90% of everything published will be published
So what went wrong? In short, Mace
said, there wasn’t enough content to justify buying readers. There
weren’t enough readers to justify converting content. Prices were too
high. Publishers treated e-books as experimental, they were reluctant to
invest in them and they have been slow to tailor advertising to new
online and mobile formats. There was some confusion about what problem
was being solved. Change only happens when all the conditions are right.
To take things beyond the decade of
experiment, he said, we need to evaluate the baggage of the past, core
values, and opportunities.
For magazines, the baggage is the
physical format and the fact that they are driven by mailing, printing
and periodic distribution. The core values of magazines are that they
are the product of thoughtful collaboration and have the hook of special
subject areas. Opportunities will emerge by rethinking the eco system,
making the most of rich media, changing the content to accommodate the
dialogue offered by social media, and personalising access and delivery.
We need to create new formats rather than mirror old formats.
Newspapers are afflicted, he said,
by the need to print on paper, to deliver to the newsagent once or twice
a day, and to respond to subscription and advertising forces. The value
of newspapers is wrapped up in their immediacy, their coverage of local,
regional, national and international stories, their capacity to provide
a filtered context and their investigative role. Mace is concerned
about their future. Opportunities are offered in the form of instant
mixed media, social media, local news and local advertising
One other realm rich in opportunity
is “short” content - out-of-print books and in-print books that aren’t
available in electronic form. In the electronic world story length
matters less than it does in the printed world. Much of our heritage is
still too inaccessible. Only a small proportion of books are available
as e-books. Mace urged the development of short content stores, based on
subscriptions, with no restrictions on price or length.
When will it pay an author to focus
on e-books? Mace said it will be when 20% of the market has e-readers.
The tipping point will be 2011 because of projected sales of iPads and
similar tablets. Mace predicts major changes on this front over the next
In summary, publishing with paper
is unsustainable. There are still important barriers to getting into the
e-publishing game. Librarians should continue to advocate the importance
of books and to exercise their preservation responsibilities. Don’t be
fixated on buildings: it can be liberating not to have a fixed
A broadcaster’s perspective
Chris Winter, from the Australian
Broadcasting Corporation's (ABC) Innovation Division, drew on his
experience in deploying ABC content on a number of platforms, developing
and nurturing new relationships with third party content providers
(including archives, libraries and museums), technology research bodies,
industry bodies, government agencies and media organisations.
He drew inspiration from the
writings of Clay Shirky about collaborative opportunities and increased
capacity generated by the internet and social media. These tools are
changing notions about “the expert” – as demonstrated by the rise of
citizen journalists and bloggers. Wikipedia is competing with the
Encyclopedia Britannica. Newspapers are closing at an alarming rate. The
embrace of mobile technology and tablets as news delivery mechanisms is
The ABC is being propelled by
changes in listener and viewer behaviours.
Its website now attracts over 3.2
million unique Australian visits and 120 million pages views each month.
Online content is being integrated with traditional programming and
channels. ABC Open (http://open.abc.net.au/), in invites regional
communities to produce and publish photos, stories, videos, and sound
through the ABC. A team of 45 producers around the country will run
workshops and events to help people learn how to use digital
A recent focus has been the Now and
Then project, which captures local history and photos (http://open.abc.net.au/projects/now-and-then).
Twitter is being used to connect to audiences and encourage their
participation in programs, notably in Q&A.
Twitter has increased viewers by 30 percent. Iview is available to catch
up on missed programs or view them in different time slots. The
Science Section has expanded the scope and nature of its teaching
and learning resources.
Other sites and productions worth
mentioning include Gallipolli: The First Day, a 3D
documentary site about the World War I Anzac landing at Gallipoli on 25
April 1915. (http://www.abc.net.au/innovation/gallipoli/).
DVDs of show have been sent to 20,000 schools as an educational
resource. Black Saturday is a website devoted to the impact of
Australia’s worst bushfire (http://www.abc.net.au/innovation/blacksaturday/#/stories/mosaic)
Bluebird AR (http://www.abc.net.au/bluebird) is a new
interactive narrative in which the elements of the plot are an online
community, a whistleblower, geo-engineering and climate change. Social
media spaces such as Facebook, Twitter, delicious, YouTube, and Flickr
are used as devices to propel the story.
The ABC has faced challenges in
developing online resources. Initially the website was based on the
organisational and programming structure of the ABC. Improving the value
of the site will call for better ways of searching for and aggregating
content from different sources. Unexpected results often come from
unexpected sources. Getting to this content is made difficult by the
difficulties of managing rights.
Managing granularity is a major
challenge. Sometimes collaboration is not attractive because of
commercial impediments. Although the Sydney Sidetracks trial
demonstrated value, there are currently insufficient resources to extend
Trove has opened up
possibilities for metadata of ABC broadcasts to be made
searchable via Trove. It’s an exciting world and some of the
most exciting things come from unexpected places.
A museum perspective
Sebastian Chan heads the Digital,
Social and Emerging Technologies Department at the Powerhouse Museum in
Sydney and is principal author of the blog Fresh and New(er)
(http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/dmsblog/) and editor-in-chief of the
Cyclic Defrost Magazine (http://www.cyclicdefrost.com/).
He talked about the excitement of
working at the Powerhouse Museum and of his efforts in taking this
cultural institution with a diverse collection deeper into the digital
universe. Five percent of the collection is on display. About 36% is
considered by staff to be well interpreted. Its target audiences are
“children and families, under 30s, culturally active adults, makers,
creators and designers.”
Museum strategies for attracting
repeated visits are shaped by different contexts, different platforms
and different visitor needs. Operational tensions driving policies and
budget priorities tend to rise to the surface in debates about the
relative merits of kids and scholars, exhibitions and collections,
buildings and media platforms, inspiration, serendipity, efficiency and
In developing digital content, the
museum is guided by a number of principles. People must be able to find
it. They must be able to understand it. The content must be responsive
to peoples’ interests and location. It must be useable, sharable and
available – online, onsite, and offsite. “Museums are a form of
collective storytelling. Museum exhibition halls offer the experience.
The Web gives access to data about the objects.”
The Powerhouse Museum’s online
adventures accelerated in 2005, when it converted a swatch book of
fabrics. The current online version - offering browsing, colour and
period searching, and social tagging features - can be found at http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/
electronicswatchbook/. It was an experience that encouraged the museum
to take a warts-and-all approach in developing online resources. The
success of the swatch book went well beyond the initial vision of making
it available, and involved a deeper consideration of metadata costs and
intellectual property rights.
Since 2006, the Museum has
experienced increased use of its website and, importantly, increased
interest by schools and school children. There have been surprises along
the way. People have not undertaken searches in the way the museum
anticipated. Some objects have attracted more interest than anticipated
– such as the level of interest generated by publication of the image of
a Delta Goodman dress.
The thirst of the web for images
has led to greater online exploitation of the museum’s photographic
collections. When, in 2007, photographs were uploaded to Flickr Commons,
there was a dramatic increase in hits to the Powerhouse Museum site. The
availability of the images in Flickr’s Then and Now project encouraged
the spirit of playfulness and engagement with a new audience. A single
photograph of a Victorian park and bandstand was the source of multiple
images in a video-recording that heightened the value of a single image
to tell a story.
China Heart (http://www.chinaheart.org.au/)
is an interactive multi-platform game for smartphones and the Web.
Meshing video, real-world art installation and performance with a rich
GPS gaming experience, it guides players on a walking tour of
significant locations in Sydney's Chinatown, located near the museum.
Crowd sourcing has led to improved
museum data and produced a chain reaction of opportunities. To assist in
managing metadata, the Powerhouse Museum has used Thomson Reuters’
OpenCalais (http://www.opencalais.com) to automatically generate tags
and it has developed a new API to assist in linking data to discovery
portals such as Trove (http://trove.nla.gov.au)
and Nzmuseums (http://www.nzmuseums.co.nz). A
Wordpress plug-in is available for use by Wordpress bloggers. The
Australian Dress Register (http://www.powerhousemuseum. com/dressregister)
uses one of the museum’s collection strengths to involve and assist a
wider community. The Museum is the lead organisation representing the
Council of Australasian Museum Directors and Museums Australia on the
Museum Metadata Exchange Project, which is working on options to link
museum data to research portals and discovery channels.
As part of its philosophy as a
“playable and playful environment,” the Powerhouse Museum has developed
and API for use by gamers and researchers. Current work is focused on
making collections available on mobile devices and building capacity for
a world of linked data. For example it has done some experiments with QR
or Quick Response codes (see discussion at http://from.ph/qr2009).
Changing the museum’s DNA, Chan
said, will involve focusing on the user experience and contexts instead
of the technologies. New visitors will bring new expectations.
Transforming the collection may involve constantly changing collecting
practices as the museum adjusts to questions about its relevance to new
And last but not least, a library perspective
Sarah Houghton-Jan is Assistant
Director of the San Rafael Public Library in California, the author of
Technology Training in Libraries and of the blog about library
technology, Librarian In Black (http://librarianinblack.net/librarianinblack/
. In her presentation, Digital Libraries: the Phoenix Rising from the
Ashes, she led delegates on a speculative journey about the future
role of libraries.
Their future, she said, is very
much tied to technological developments in four territories: education,
the library profession itself, communication and entertain.
The patterns of changing habits are
there to see. We now live in both a physical world and a virtual world,
where 30% of library users are interested in electronic information
only, 10% can be described as ‘bricks and mortar’ users, and 60% use
These patterns can be further
encapsulated by connections to the internet, use of the internet, use of
Facebook, and the growing use of mobile devices.
According to the Australian Bureau
of Statistics in July 2010, Australian dial-up connections to the
internet have dropped from about 50% in 2006 to about 10% in 2010. The
proportion of DLS and cable connections has increased slightly in that
Actual use of the Internet has been
regularly surveyed be Nielsen. In August 2009, it reported that about
80% of Australians are regular internet users. In April 2010, it
reported that 90% of internet users were social networkers, 63% used
Facebook, and 23% - or about 12% of the Australian population - used
Twitter. Australian internet users spend most of the time on the
internet using social networking tools.
The Facebook phenomenon was
captured in an October 2010 Hitwise report: it is the second most
visited website after Google, but is more popular than Google in the
18-24 age group. It attracts 19.3% of all page views (compared with
Googles 7.4%). It is the number one search term in all of the major
search engines. About 11% of visits to other sites come from links on
Mobile connections are
accelerating. According to a 2009 Nielsen survey, 43% of Australian
online users have smart phones. About 73% of smart phone owners run web
searches regularly, 18% use Twitter on their mobile devices, 18% use
YouTube on mobile devices and 66% of mobile social networkers are under
35 years of age.
The digital library agenda will
also be shaped by the development of cloud computing, touch screens, the
development of Internet TV, 3D gaming, and 3D printing, among other
Challenges will be faced on several
To manage collections, we will
continue to wrestle with the proportion of funds to be spent on digital
resources over other types of resources and the need to provide access
when the library is closed. This agenda is underscored by recent
statistics from the San Jose Public Library, where e-book downloads are
up 43%, digital reference enquiries are up 450%, catalogue use is up
140% and extended web presence use is up 12,000%. Digital e-book
collection issues include user awareness, dealing with different
formats, managing digital rights, extending collections through
digitisation of local material, supporting more than text, lending the
technology as well as the content, and supporting use of devices,
To manage information services, we
will grapple with issues around competitive advantage. Programming will
consider the digital divide and the long tail, the “have-nots, sort-of-
haves and haves.”
Library systems will be shaped by
questions about usability, integration and the limited success of
What do we cut? Houghton-Jan
suggested that we focus on functions, not brand or category. Go mobile
or go home. Consider the value of apps over websites. Look into the use
of augmented reality for local history tours, genealogy, and promoting
what you have that no-one else has. Consider developing computing
services and spaces in terms of support and ergonomics.
In a future that’s not all that
clear, libraries, Houghton-Jan said, have been “a bit slow and frugal.”
They need to look at trends outside the world of libraries, think about
technology in general rather than focus too much on library technology
and, instead of thinking about “people”, they should interpret trends
based on what the people they know are doing
On the other hand, she encouraged
librarians to stick to tried and tested core values – provision of
complete and balanced information, assisting research, education,
entertainment and self improvement.
“Libraries democratise. They are
awesome.” (Wild applause).
The e-book story unfolds
As soon as the conference ended, the threat to the
book chain Borders hit the news stands. Bloomberg pointed the finger for
the demise at its slow embrace of digital reading.
The antipodean flow-on appeared two weeks later in the Sydney Morning
Herald, which reported that not only Borders, but also Angus &
Robertson had been placed into voluntary administration by their private
The Herald pointed the finger at the popularity of
overseas online purchasing. Other commentators sheeted home the blame to
News of the demise of the bookstores was
accompanied by news of the emergence of rivals to lending libraries or
partnerships by lending libraries with other online providers. The
website Lendle (http://lendle.me/) acts as a Kindle e-books lending
agent in the United States. In late February, the Internet Archive
announced a partnership with 150 libraries across the United States when
it launched an e-book lending program via OpenLibrary.org (http://openlibrary.org/).
And, in the Wall Street Journal, Katherine Boehret wrote about
OverDrive’s app which enables e-books to be downloaded from local
libraries to Apple iPad and Android tablets.
These experimental ventures no doubt still have some distance to
Exemplifying a point made by Michael Mace about the
e-book tipping point, Novelr ran a story about Amanda Hocking, a 26 year
old indie (independent) writer, who sells more than 100,000 copies of
her self-published e-books per month.
The average price of e-books is in the range $3 to $5 a copy.
Amazon’s cut is 30%. The low price encourages high volume sales. Success
via the traditional publishing route does not appear to matter. The top
indie writers sell from 2500 copies to 100,000 a month. Do the sums.
The positive outlook for e-books was underscored in
a recent PriceWaterhouseCoopers’ report.
It said that while the publishing industry, especially in Europe,
is at the beginning of its digital transformation, the breakthrough is
under way. Reader habits are changing. E-book readers are improving.
E-books will not replace the printed book, but if publishers are to make
the most of the opportunities, they must invest now. Those involved need
to consider the process of digitising the book industry.
The process of digitising the
book industry will no doubt continue to navigate turf wars. When the
British Library announced plans to digitise all of its 14 million books,
Alex Hudson reported a declaration of war with libraries by
publishers in the United Kingdom. Publishers in the e-lending game fear
the competition of free lending from libraries and threats to the
commercial model. Their response involves the introduction of
restrictions to e-lending by geographical location or the number of
readers or the number of uses. Debates on the e-book trade have centred
on whether ownership means outright ownership or just a licence to view
a digital file.
The most interesting idea from the conference
Perhaps the most interesting idea to float to the
surface during the conference was one touched on by Chris Winter when he
referred to the writing of Clay Shirky to draw attention to questions of
capacity and productivity.
Shirky, in Gin, Television and
the Cognitive Surplus and related works, argues that spare time has
become creative, not just consumptive. Online cultural pursuits and
playfulness are replacing compulsive, self-anesthetising television
viewing. This transformation echoes the eradication of the gin craze
that inflicted England at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution:
technology, for the early phase of the Industrial Revolution, was gin.
The transformation from rural to urban life was so sudden, and so
wrenching, that the only thing society could do to manage was to drink
itself into a stupor for a generation. And it wasn't until society woke
up from that collective bender that it actually started to get the
institutional structures that we associate with the industrial
revolution today…it's only now, as we're waking up from that collective
bender, that we're starting to see the cognitive surplus as an asset
rather than as a crisis.”
Sharky illustrates the size of the surplus by comparing
television viewing with the development of Wikipedia, which
represents an accumulation of 100 million hours of human
thought. In the USA alone, people spend two hundred billion
hours every year – or the equivalent of 2,000 Wikipedia projects
a year - watching television. Wikipedia draws on an“architecture
of participation.” Social media, harnessing this power, will
change the nature of production and consumption.
It is an idea that resonates with the sigmoid
curve, the life-cycle metaphor that describes the phases, ebb and flow
of civilisations, organisations and personal relationships, as described
by Charles Handy in The Empty Raincoat.
If the last 15 years represents the gin-crazed phase of the internet
revolution, the next phase will be marked by confidence towards the
Semantic Web, at which point we will be confronted by a new revolution.
In the final session of the conference,
Houghton-Jan and Michael Mace were joined by Mary Anne Kennan, a senior
lecturer at Charles Sturt University, Sophie McDonald (University of
Technology Sydney) and Melinda Stewart (George Western Foods) in a panel
discussion that considered an old refrain: “doing more with less.”
Sarah Houghton Jan took issue with the phrase:
exploring future options needs an open mind. Kennan reinforced the
point: dealing with the present was a question of creating balance,
prioritising and cutting things that are of low value or impossible to
do. Mace said he often works with little money anyway. When he puts
together companies, he works without an office, and uses skype and open
source groupware for communication. He can bring together people from
anywhere in the world. But such an enterprise relies on the ability of
people to get things done rather than the amount of time they spend in
Delegates posed questions or offered comments with
the aid of microphone and Twitter. Are libraries the last of the cottage
industries? Do we need to think about outsourcing? Why doesn’t 100% of
the population use public libraries? Why didn’t libraries invent Google?
When someone in the auditorium asked members of the
panel for the most innovative idea of the conference, one answer
arrived by Twitter: “break the rules.” On the subject of innovation,
though, someone had the good sense to suggest that maybe it was better
to offer better service than attempt to be too clever.
The session concluded with a discussion about
whether it was better to be recognised as librarians or information
specialists. The use of the more generic term in tertiary courses and in
some job titles has caused ambiguities about the nature of the job. The
old fashioned term at least had the merit of being less fuzzy, even if
it encouraged perceptions about stereotypes.
There was a sense of déjà vu about this session.
Ambiguities about roles and fears about disappearing libraries were the
talk of conferences ten years ago. During the past decade, librarians
appeared to have found more assurance about their place in the internet
revolution. It was therefore surprising to hear old questions and a
touch of paranoia rise to the surface again.
The mood may have been encouraged
by Jim McKerlie when he talked about new paradigms, winners and losers.
Darwinism will prevail, he had said. Some libraries will close and new
ones will flourish. To win, we must re-skill, re-position, and sell.
Internet-fuelled new paradigms have
been illustrated by the rise of Obama and the fall of dictatorships in
North Africa. Magical possibilities were flagged in the presentations by
Chris Winter and Sebastian Chan. But, to what extent, will all of this
When we hear about new paradigms,
we sometimes need to exercise healthy caution. As John Ralston Saul
observed, “doubt is central to understanding. It is the space between
reality and the application of an idea. It ought to be given over to the
weighing of experience, intuition, creativity, ethics, common sense,
reason, and of course, knowledge.”
McKerlie’s suggested motto for the
future - “information: what they want, in the form they want it, when
they want it” – was the mission on the cover of library plans in the
1980s. Business plans and library marketing have been widely used
tools for dealing with changing environments. New games seem to call for
All the more reason to test the wind in part two,
which will look at the conference presentations in the parallel
Operating in a World of Ornate Variations and
Tipping Points: the ALIA Information Online Conference, Part 2
ALIA Information Online 2011 website http://www.information-online.com.au/
Shirky, C. “Gin, Television, and Social Surplus” Here Comes
Everybody, 26 Apr 2008
Bentley, P. Searching for the Next Sigmoid Curve, Online
Currents July/August 2002 and the Wolanski Foundation. http://www.twf.org.au/research/sigmoid1.html
Saul, JR. The Doubter’s Companion: A Dictionary of Aggressive
Common Sense. London; Penguin, 1995.
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